Propulsion batteries

In the battery regulations, a distinction is made between starter batteries and industrial batteries. All batteries - including Li-ion batteries - used to drive cars are classified as industrial batteries. Manufacturers are required to take these batteries back after they have been discarded.

The role of ARN

On behalf of the participating importers, ARN is responsible for the collection and recycling of end-of-life propulsion batteries and Li-ion starter batteries with a negative residual value. Broadly speaking, this involves collecting batteries that have been replaced from dealers, and collecting propulsion batteries for example from ELV's at car dismantling companies.

The batteries in question are Li-ion batteries. The growth in the number of electric cars will lead to an increase in the number of discarded batteries for collection & recycling. In addition to collection and processing, ARN is also responsible for information provision and the annual reporting on the collection and recycling of starter batteries and propulsion batteries to the Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management.

For the compulsory reporting on the number of batteries placed on the market and batteries collected, ARN uses the Stibat reporting system.



For importers

On behalf of full participants in the ARN Management Plan, ARN is responsible for the collection and recycling of end-of-life batteries. Via the registration form, you can register a battery for collection. By correctly specifying the brand, type and condition of the battery, the collector is able to safely collect the battery, using the appropriate transport equipment.

Not all car importers participate in this collective system. There are car brands that have opted to organise a closed-loop system within their own organisation. They then organise the collection, processing and possible second life of batteries for themselves. The ARN dismantling network can also contact ARN for non-affiliated brands: we then put them in touch with the relevant importer.

To the list of participating marques.

Two routes for recycling

The Li-ion batteries collected by ARN can then take one of two routes. If the batteries are still in sufficiently good condition and are suitable for a second life, they are sent to one of the companies with an end-of-waste ruling. The other route is the direct route to the battery recycler, who aims at a recycling rate that is as high as achievable.



Route 1:

ARN works with three partners with an end-of-waste ruling. These companies accept the battery as waste, and put it to use in a new stationary application, for example for energy storage.

These companies have been awarded a so-called end-of-waste ruling by the Dutch government, that allows them to make propulsion batteries from end-of-life electric cars suitable for second use in stationary applications. They take over the producers’ responsibility from the automotive producer.

NPP Power Europe

NPP Power Europe is one of the collaboration partners of ARN for the second use use of batteries. The end-of-life car batteries collected via ARN are given a second life by NPP Power for example in solar panels for road signs, installations for temporarily energy surplus storing, renewable installations or installations for backup power. The material used by NPP Power for the products the company develops would otherwise have ended up unused. Not only do they give these products a second life, but also double the service life of the materials. And the costs are lower than the purchase price for virgin products. In everything they do, they try to keep their impact on the environment as small as possible for example by using clean energy from wind and solar sources.

Time Shift energy storage

The Duiven-based company Time Shift energy storage, as an ARN partner, processes end-of-life batteries. The company develops energy storage systems based on end-of-life batteries, that are then used by energy companies.


ARN supplies propulsion batteries from cars to EcarACCU. To safely dismantle the propulsion batteries, employees at the company first check whether the cells are still producing power. The propulsion batteries are rejected for use in the automotive industry, but outside cars there are plenty of other possibilities for second use. One notable application is the storage of solar energy. The second use of propulsion batteries also offers an excellent solution for power supply in remote areas.

Route 2: Battery processor

When a battery reaches the battery recycler, it passes through a series of steps. To dismantle the battery safely, it is first deep-discharged or neutralised in some other manner. The wiring and housing are then removed. To separate the materials, the modules/cells undergo a series of further steps, depending on the battery recycler. In many cases, these processes include pyrolysis, shredding, mechanical separation and hydrometallurgy. Using these methods, more than 70% of the weight of the battery, excluding the casing, can be retrieved. Developments within Europe indicate that in the very near future, it will be possible to increase the recycling efficiency to more than 90% material reuse.

At present there are no battery recyclers in the Netherlands; all batteries are therefore processed in Germany, Belgium or France. ARN has commissioned an Ecotest at the processors responsible for processing its drive batteries. An Ecotest provides an insight into the recycling efficiency and CO₂ footprint of the process. The resulting recycling efficiency figures are used in the report to government.